What is a programming operators in c

An operator is a symbol that operates on a value or a variable. For example + is an operator to perform addition.
C has a wide range of operators to perform various operations.

C Arithmetic Operators

An arithmetic operator performs mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc on numerical values (constants and variables).
OperatorMeaning of Operator
+addition or unary plus
-subtraction or unary minus
*multiplication
/division
%remainder after division (modulo division)

Example 1: Arithmetic Operators

  1. // Working of arithmetic operators
  2. #include <stdio.h>
  3. int main()
  4. {
  5. int a = 9,b = 4, c;
  6. c = a+b;
  7. printf("a+b = %d \n",c);
  8. c = a-b;
  9. printf("a-b = %d \n",c);
  10. c = a*b;
  11. printf("a*b = %d \n",c);
  12. c = a/b;
  13. printf("a/b = %d \n",c);
  14. c = a%b;
  15. printf("Remainder when a divided by b = %d \n",c);
  16. return 0;
  17. }
a+b = 13
a-b = 5
a*b = 36
a/b = 2
Remainder when a divided by b=1
The operators +- and * computes addition, subtraction, and multiplication respectively as you might have expected.
In normal calculation, 9/4 = 2.25. However, the output is 2 in the program.
It is because both the variables a and b are integers. Hence, the output is also an integer. The compiler neglects the term after the decimal point and shows answer 2 instead of 2.25.
The modulo operator % computes the remainder. When a=9 is divided by b=4, the remainder is 1. The % operator can only be used with integers.
Suppose a = 5.0b = 2.0c = 5 and d = 2. Then in C programming,
// Either one of the operands is a floating-point number
a/b = 2.5  
a/d = 2.5  
c/b = 2.5  

// Both operands are integers
c/d = 2

C Increment and Decrement Operators

C programming has two operators increment ++ and decrement -- to change the value of an operand (constant or variable) by 1.
Increment ++ increases the value by 1 whereas decrement -- decreases the value by 1. These two operators are unary operators, meaning they only operate on a single operand.

Example 2: Increment and Decrement Operators

  1. // Working of increment and decrement operators
  2. #include <stdio.h>
  3. int main()
  4. {
  5. int a = 10, b = 100;
  6. float c = 10.5, d = 100.5;
  7. printf("++a = %d \n", ++a);
  8. printf("--b = %d \n", --b);
  9. printf("++c = %f \n", ++c);
  10. printf("--d = %f \n", --d);
  11. return 0;
  12. }
Output
++a = 11
--b = 99
++c = 11.500000
++d = 99.500000
Here, the operators ++ and -- are used as prefixes. These two operators can also be used as postfixes like a++ and a--. Visit this page to learn more about how to increment and decrement operators work when used as postfix.

C Assignment Operators

An assignment operator is used for assigning a value to a variable. The most common assignment operator is =
OperatorExampleSame as
=a = ba = b
+=a += ba = a+b
-=a -= ba = a-b
*=a *= ba = a*b
/=a /= ba = a/b
%=a %= ba = a%b

Example 3: Assignment Operators

  1. // Working of assignment operators
  2. #include <stdio.h>
  3. int main()
  4. {
  5. int a = 5, c;
  6. c = a; // c is 5
  7. printf("c = %d\n", c);
  8. c += a; // c is 10
  9. printf("c = %d\n", c);
  10. c -= a; // c is 5
  11. printf("c = %d\n", c);
  12. c *= a; // c is 25
  13. printf("c = %d\n", c);
  14. c /= a; // c is 5
  15. printf("c = %d\n", c);
  16. c %= a; // c = 0
  17. printf("c = %d\n", c);
  18. return 0;
  19. }
Output
c = 5 
c = 10 
c = 5 
c = 25 
c = 5 
c = 0

C Relational Operators

A relational operator checks the relationship between two operands. If the relation is true, it returns 1; if the relation is false, it returns value 0.
Relational operators are used in decision making and loops.
OperatorMeaning of OperatorExample
==Equal to5 == 3 is evaluated to 0
>Greater than5 > 3 is evaluated to 1
<Less than5 < 3 is evaluated to 0
!=Not equal to5 != 3 is evaluated to 1
>=Greater than or equal to5 >= 3 is evaluated to 1
<=Less than or equal to5 <= 3 is evaluated to 0

Example 4: Relational Operators

  1. // Working of relational operators
  2. #include <stdio.h>
  3. int main()
  4. {
  5. int a = 5, b = 5, c = 10;
  6. printf("%d == %d is %d \n", a, b, a == b);
  7. printf("%d == %d is %d \n", a, c, a == c);
  8. printf("%d > %d is %d \n", a, b, a > b);
  9. printf("%d > %d is %d \n", a, c, a > c);
  10. printf("%d < %d is %d \n", a, b, a < b);
  11. printf("%d < %d is %d \n", a, c, a < c);
  12. printf("%d != %d is %d \n", a, b, a != b);
  13. printf("%d != %d is %d \n", a, c, a != c);
  14. printf("%d >= %d is %d \n", a, b, a >= b);
  15. printf("%d >= %d is %d \n", a, c, a >= c);
  16. printf("%d <= %d is %d \n", a, b, a <= b);
  17. printf("%d <= %d is %d \n", a, c, a <= c);
  18. return 0;
  19. }
Output
5 == 5 is 1
5 == 10 is 0
5 > 5 is 0
5 > 10 is 0
5 < 5 is 0
5 < 10 is 1
5 != 5 is 0
5 != 10 is 1
5 >= 5 is 1
5 >= 10 is 0
5 <= 5 is 1
5 <= 10 is 1 

C Logical Operators

An expression containing logical operator returns either 0 or 1 depending upon whether expression results true or false. Logical operators are commonly used in decision making in c programming.
OperatorMeaningExample
&&Logical AND. True only if all operands are trueIf c = 5 and d = 2 then, expression ((c==5) && (d>5)) equals to 0.
||Logical OR. True only if either one operand is trueIf c = 5 and d = 2 then, expression ((c==5) || (d>5)) equals to 1.
!Logical NOT. True only if the operand is 0If c = 5 then, expression !(c==5) equals to 0.

Example 5: Logical Operators

  1. // Working of logical operators
  2. #include <stdio.h>
  3. int main()
  4. {
  5. int a = 5, b = 5, c = 10, result;
  6. result = (a == b) && (c > b);
  7. printf("(a == b) && (c > b) is %d \n", result);
  8. result = (a == b) && (c < b);
  9. printf("(a == b) && (c < b) is %d \n", result);
  10. result = (a == b) || (c < b);
  11. printf("(a == b) || (c < b) is %d \n", result);
  12. result = (a != b) || (c < b);
  13. printf("(a != b) || (c < b) is %d \n", result);
  14. result = !(a != b);
  15. printf("!(a == b) is %d \n", result);
  16. result = !(a == b);
  17. printf("!(a == b) is %d \n", result);
  18. return 0;
  19. }
Output
(a == b) && (c > b) is 1 
(a == b) && (c < b) is 0 
(a == b) || (c < b) is 1 
(a != b) || (c < b) is 0 
!(a != b) is 1 
!(a == b) is 0 
Explanation of logical operator program
  • (a == b) && (c > 5) evaluates to 1 because both operands (a == b) and (c > b) is 1 (true).
  • (a == b) && (c < b) evaluates to 0 because operand (c < b) is 0 (false).
  • (a == b) || (c < b) evaluates to 1 because (a = b) is 1 (true).
  • (a != b) || (c < b) evaluates to 0 because both operand (a != b) and (c < b) are 0 (false).
  • !(a != b) evaluates to 1 because operand (a != b) is 0 (false). Hence, !(a != b) is 1 (true).
  • !(a == b) evaluates to 0 because (a == b) is 1 (true). Hence, !(a == b) is 0 (false).

C Bitwise Operators

During computation, mathematical operations like: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc are converted to bit-level which makes processing faster and saves power.
Bitwise operators are used in C programming to perform bit-level operations.
OperatorsMeaning of operators
&Bitwise AND
|Bitwise OR
^Bitwise exclusive OR
~Bitwise complement
<<Shift left
>>Shift right


Othetorsr Opera


Comma Operator

Comma operators are used to link related expressions together. For example:
  1. int a, c = 5, d;

The sizeof operator

The sizeof is a unary operator that returns the size of data (constants, variables, array, structure, etc).

Example 6: sizeof Operator

  1. #include <stdio.h>
  2. int main()
  3. {
  4. int a;
  5. float b;
  6. double c;
  7. char d;
  8. printf("Size of int=%lu bytes\n",sizeof(a));
  9. printf("Size of float=%lu bytes\n",sizeof(b));
  10. printf("Size of double=%lu bytes\n",sizeof(c));
  11. printf("Size of char=%lu byte\n",sizeof(d));
  12. return 0;
  13. }
Output
Size of int = 4 bytes
Size of float = 4 bytes
Size of double = 8 bytes
Size of char = 1 byte

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